May 4th 2004
Cesar Chavez- Born in 1927, Cesar has always had the seeds on activism in him. As a boy Cesar moved from farm to farm picking crops. Cesar started his fight for equality by defying a segregated movie theater. He was a union leader for the United Farm Workers Organizing Commitee.
United Farm Workers Organizing Commitee- a labor union formed in 1966 to seek higher wages and better working conditions for Mexican American workers in California
La Raza Unida- a Latino political organization founded in 1969 by Jose Angel Gutierrez
American Indian Movement- a frequently militant organization that was formed in 1968 to fight for Native American rights.
A. Many Latinos wherever they were faced social and ethnic prejudice in the US. They could not get equal jobs or proper housing. Most Latino families lived in barrios or segregated neighborhoods.
B. When California grapes refused to unionize, Cesar Chavez led the charge against banning company grapes. When the California company lost considerable profit and public image deteriorated, the company unionized which gave its workers higher wages.
C. Native Americans faced the same problems there people have always faced. They have the highest unemployment rate and are the poorest Americans. Even though there population numbers spiked in the 1960’s, there infant death rate jumped and there life expectancy dropped.
D. The AIM organization used old style sit in’s mixed with violent actions. They would occupy a town or property and cause damage to the area. They would always tie there “sit in” sites with Native American history.
E. The AIM organization won land back in Alaska, Washington, Maine, and South Dakota. They used old land deeds and historical documents to seize back some 40 million plus land acres and some $349 million plus dollars in land money.
feminism- the belief that women should have economic, social, and political equality as men
Betty Friedan- In 1963 Betty Friedan wrote The Feminine Mystique which told of the discontent women were feeling during that time. She inspired feminism throughout the US.
National Organization for Women- An organization founded in 1966 to pursue feminist goals, such as better child-care facilities, improved educational oppportunities, and end of job description
Equal Rights Amendment- a proposed amendment in the US Constitution that would end government job descrimination based on sex.
Phyllis Schlaffy- Schlaffy started the stop-ERA organization. Phyllis said the amendment would destroy family life and the amedmant was started by radical feminists who were anti-family life.
A. During the civil rights and anti-war movement women learned to support themselves and not to believe in male propaganda. Women had a chance to earn some serious money and responsibilities.
B. What prompted the NWO to form was the continually growing number of women who were dissatisfied EEOC. The women said the EEOC didnt sympathize with womens grievances. The NWO formed to deal with more active womens issues.
C. The women against the ERA thought that the amendment would destroy the home and family life, not to mention jeopardize the males role as the bread winner in the family. That type of problem could cause more trouble than its worth. That kind of trouble can break up marriages.
D. The women’s movement helped get specialized courses for women in college. The movement opened new jobs in society and closed the wage gap between men and women significantly. Not only in the social economy did women gain power but politically. More and more women were holding office job and positions.
countercultural- the culture of young people that rejected the social mainstream of the 1960’s and sought to create a society based on love, peace, and individual freedom.
Haight-Ashbury- a San Francisco district that was the center for hippie counterculturelism in the 60’s.
The Beatles- a British band that had an enormous impact influence on popular music in the 1960’s
WoodStock- A music festival that attracted more than 400,000 young people to a farm in upstate New York in 1969.
A. The main goal of the countercultural movement was to show that American society with all of its war, technology, and material wealth, has grown into a hollow nation. The hippies felt it was time to show people that there are other things out there.
B. The Hippie movement fell apart because of violence. Charles Manson decided to kill people in order to speed up the revolution. People were homeless and hustling other hippies. Violence spread throughout the Hippie movement. Finally excessive drug use caused most Hippies to die or just give up.
C. With all the chaos and social disorder plaguing the nation, Richard Nixon seized control of the problem and ran with it. It propeled him into office because the American people needed a solution.
May 4 2004
Ho Chi Minh- Born Nguyen Tat Thanh to a poor family,
Ho Chi Minh found early work as a cook on a French
ship, which allowed him to visit such cities as Boston
and New York. During World War I, Ho Chi Minh moved to
France to work as a gardener, waiter, photo retoucher,
and oven stoker. Ho Chi Minh, who ruled North Vietnam
from 1954 til his death in 1969, was revered by his
country men as the benevolent “Uncle Ho”. During his
reign, however, he advocated for one-party rule and
repressed all opposition. The Communist ruler’s name
lived on after his death. In 1975 the N. Vietnamese
attacked the South, took the capitol of Saigon and
changed it to Ho Chi Minh city.
Vietminh- an organization of Vietnamese Communists and
other nationalist groups that between 1946-1954 fought
for Vietnamese independance from the French.
domino theory- the idea that if a nation fell to
Communism, nearby nations would also fall to Communism
Dien Bien Phu- The site in which the Vietnamese
attacked the French and it led to Vietnamese
Independence from France.
Geneva Accords- A 1954 peace agreement that divided
Vietnam into Communist controlled North Vietnam and
non-Communist controlled South Vietnam until
unification elections could be held in 1956.
Ngo Dinh Diem- The anti-Communist ruler of South
Vietnam. The US supported him during the Vietnam War
because he was an Anti-Communist. He promised the US
to hold free elections and to run a democratic
government. He instead oppressed the people and ran a
corrupt government. He was over thrown and asasinated
later in the War.
Vietcong- The South Vietnamese Communists who, with
the support of N. Vietnam, fought against the
government of S. Vietnam during the Vietnam war.
Ho Chi Minh Trail- a network of paths used by North
Vietnam to transport supplies to the Vietcong in South
Tonkin Gulf Resolution- a resolution adopted by
Congress in 1964, giving the president broad powers to
wage war in Vietnam.
A. The US had provided support to French in Vietnam
because of the Communist threat that Vietnam was
posing. Since France was our ally in World War II we
felt the need to back them immediately not for just
quelling Communism but, because we owe them.
B. The US did not want Vietnam to unite based on the
fact that Ho Chi Minh, a communist leader, would have
ruled the whole of Vietnam. This would make Vietnam
fall under the category of a communist nation. The
only alternative the US had was to support Ngo Dinh
Diem solely based on the fact he was an
C. Diem was so unpopular in Vietnam. Diem ran a very
corrupt government, did not have a land reform, and
failed to hold Democratic elections. Diem also
constantly attacked the Buddhist religion. Despite US
pleas to stop the attacks Diem continued to assault
the Buddhist religion.
D. The Gulf of Tonkin resolution helped add power to
the President. Since the attack on the USS Maddox was
un checked, the President demanded absolute military
power and he got it in the Tonkin Resolution.
Robert McNamara- During Kennedy’s time in office
Robert McNamara was Secretary of Defense of the US.
Dean Rusk- During the Kennedy administration Rusk
served as the secretary of state for the US.
William Westmoreland- Westmoreland led the assault in
Vietnam. Being a West Point graduate, Kennedy felt he
was best fitted for the job. Though caught up in
slander about the war later, westmoreland had a solid
reputation when he left the service in 1972.
napalm- a gasoline based substance used in US bombs
dropped in Vietnam to burn away jungle to expose
Agent Orange- A leaf killing chemical sprayed in
Vietnam to expose Vietcong hideouts.
search and destroy mission- a US military raid on a
South Vietnamese village, intended to root out
villagers with ties to the Vietcong but often
destroyed the village and scattered its inhabitants
credibility gap- a public distrust of statements made
by the US government
A. In the Johnson administration, Lyndon tried to push
across to the people that the US was winning the war,
and increased troop involvement would clinch a
victory. Johnson pumped out false propaganda to make
himself look good in the eyes of the American people.
B. The US had a difficult time fighting the Vietcong
because of the resiliency of the enemy. Despite being
constantly pounded the Vietcong came back for more.
Also considering the fact that the Us was fighting
them on there on home territory, guerilla warfare
reigns supreem in the jungle.
C. US soldiers constantly lost morale because of not
only low US government support but because of low S.
Vietnamese government support. While soldiers were
fighting in the war there were talks of peace. Even
the Vietnamese allies were fighting themselves. And
the South Vietnamese government was so corrupt that
monks were burning themselves again.
D. The fact that Communists were dying was good. But
when Americans say young American men being killed and
shipped back to the states in body bags, left the
country angry and betrayed. A credibility gap grew in
the nation between the people and the government.
New Left-A youth dominated political movement in the
1960’s, embodied in youth groups such as Students for
a Democratic society and the free Speech Movement.
Students for a Democratic Society- An anti-establiment
New Left group, founded in 1960 it called for greater
individual freedom and responsibility.
Free Speech movement- an anti-establishment New Left
organization that originated a clash in 1964 between
students and the University of California at Berkeley.
dove- a person who opposed the Vietnam war and felt
the US should withdraw from there.
hawk- A person who supported the US in the Vietnam war
and believed the US should increase military power to
A. During the draft the rich children of families
could get out if they could afford to go to college
and got a college deferment. So the lower class that
could not afford to go to college or the minorities
that weren’t accepted all went off to fight the good
fight in Vietnam.
B. New Left groups attacked the government because
they were violating “God” given rights that made them
Americans. They claimed that the government was
becoming a faceless machine with powerful business
C. Most fought the war propaganda because they felt
that the US was just interfering in a countries Civil
War. Others believed that the US was just trying to
police the world and it was sapping the strength of
the American economy.
D. The doves were the protestors that felt the US
should withdraw from Vietnam because they were
interfering in a other country’s business. Hawks
believed that the war in Vietnam was just and the US
should strengthen its efforts in order to win the war.
E. Johnson faced problems from doves for not
withdrawing from Vietnam and Hawks for not increasing
power in Vietnam. Johnson also faced problems from
Congress because of his war policies. Johnson also had
picketed protests going on outside of the White House.
Tet Offensive- a massive suprise attack by the
Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities early in
1968. It violated the cease fire between the US and
Vietnam but it failed to achieve its main goal of
rallying the people around the guerilla cause.
Clark Clifford- After Robert McNamara resigned,
Johnson picked Clark to be the Secretary of State in
1968 because Clark was a trusted friend of Johnson’s.
Robert Kennedy- Brother to former president John
Kennedy and son to Joesph Kennedy, he was John’s right
hand man during the Kennedy administration. Robert, a
senator from NY, decided to run against Johnson in
1968 for the presidentcy
Eugene McCarthy- A senator from Minesota that ran for
president against LBJ under the “Ending the war”
platform. McCarthy won 42% of the vote in the NH
Hubert Humphrey- In 1968 Humphrey was the Vice
President/ Presidential candidate for the Democratic
George Wallace- An Alabama governor that entered the
1968 presidential election as an independent
candidate. He took 5 Southern states in his running.
A. After the Tet Offensive American morale wavered
because it showed the true strength of the guerilla
army and also showed that the VC still had alittle
fight left in them. It struck a huge blow to American
B. Johnson’s popularity in the US has fallen so
drastically that if he ran, Johnson wouldn’t get a
C. In 1968 you had atleast 5 presidential candidates, the assasinations of RFK and MLK, Vietnam, protests, and the Democratic Convention incident in Chicago.
D. After Nixon’s political career seemed to be dead he rose from the ashes to take the reigns. Nixon succeeded in doing this by winning Congress and Senate battles for Republicans and establishing a popular vote. When Wallace entered it guaranteed Nixon victory because Humphrey would not be able to take the south.
Vietnamization- President Nixon’s stradegy for ending US involvement in the Vietnam war by pulling US forces out and replacing them with S. Vietnamese forces.
silent majority- name given by President Nixon to the moderate, mainstream Americans who quietly supported his Vietnam War Policies.
Henry Kissinger- Born in 1923, Kissinger along with the rest of his family fled Germany to escape the Nazi regime. Kissinger has always been a man that admired power. Henry joined Nixons campaign and the two became close collegues. He helped end Vietnam and make ties with China and Russia.
Khmer Rouge- a communist group that seized power in Cambodia in 1975.
War Powers Act- a law enacted in 1973, it limited the presidents right to send troops into battle without first consulting Congress.
A. Nixon wanted to maintain US dignity in the face of the world and also wanted to still have power at the negotiating table. Even the US was pulling out Nixon still wanted to have a say.
B. Even the the shootingd were inhumane and excessive some Americans still felt that the protesting students still got what they deserved.
C. If the Pentagon Papers had been written for the Nixon administration, then Nixon’s “ending the war” policy would have been a farse, and would have caused a social disturbance with the American public.
D. America was just involved with this war for 19 years. America lost 53,000 lives and billions of dollars. If America had re entered the war and lost, it would permanently damaged America’s image.
E. Not only did America abolish the draft and restrict the presidents war powers but, Americans gained a national conscience. Before America goes barging into other countries affairs, they now stop and think before they act.